What is Copper? A Comprehensive Guide to the Versatile Metal

What is Copper? Understanding the Basics

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with a distinctive reddish-orange color. Copper is a member of the transition metals group and is known for its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as its resistance to corrosion.

Copper is a naturally occurring element that is found in the Earth’s crust. It is often found in mineral deposits, such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS₂), bornite (Cu₅FeS₄), and malachite (Cu₂CO₃(OH)₂). These minerals are extracted through mining processes and then refined to produce pure copper.

Some of the key physical properties of copper include:

  • Density: 8.96 g/cm³
  • Melting point: 1,084.62°C (1,984.32°F)
  • Boiling point: 2,562°C (4,644°F)
  • Thermal conductivity: 401 W/(m·K)
  • Electrical conductivity: 5.96 × 10⁷ S/m

Copper’s unique combination of properties makes it an essential material in various industries, including electrical and electronic applications, construction, transportation, and manufacturing.

The History of Copper

Copper has played a significant role in human history, with evidence of its use dating back over 10,000 years. The discovery of copper and its subsequent use in tools and decorative objects marked the beginning of the Copper Age, also known as the Chalcolithic period.

Early Discovery and Use of Copper

One of the earliest known examples of copper use comes from the Middle East, where archaeologists have found copper beads dating back to 9000 BCE. As civilizations developed, so did the use of copper. The ancient Egyptians used copper to create tools, weapons, and jewelry, while the Romans used it for coins and plumbing.

Copper in Ancient Civilizations

  1. Ancient Egypt: Copper was used extensively in ancient Egypt for jewelry, tools, and weapons. The Egyptians also developed the lost-wax casting technique, which allowed them to create intricate copper objects.
  2. Ancient China: The Chinese used copper to create coins, mirrors, and ceremonial vessels. They also developed advanced metalworking techniques, such as bronze casting.
  3. Ancient Greece and Rome: The Greeks and Romans used copper for a variety of purposes, including coins, sculptures, and architectural elements. The Romans also pioneered the use of copper for plumbing, using copper pipes to transport water.

The Evolution of Copper Production

As civilizations grew and technology advanced, so did the methods of copper production. The earliest copper objects were likely made from native copper, which is found in its pure form in nature. However, as demand for copper increased, people began to develop ways to extract copper from its ores.

The process of smelting, which involves heating copper ores to high temperatures to separate the metal from other elements, was developed around 5000 BCE. This process allowed for the production of larger quantities of copper and led to the development of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin.

As the use of copper continued to grow, so did the need for more efficient production methods. In the 19th century, the invention of the blast furnace and the Bessemer process revolutionized the production of copper and other metals, allowing for the mass production of copper on an industrial scale.

Today, copper is produced using a combination of modern mining techniques and advanced refining processes, ensuring a steady supply of this essential metal for use in a wide range of applications.

Copper Properties

Copper is known for its unique set of chemical and physical properties that make it an essential material in various industries.

Chemical Properties

  • Reactivity: Copper is a relatively unreactive metal, which means it does not easily combine with other elements. However, it does react with oxygen in the air to form a green patina on its surface, which actually protects the metal from further corrosion.
  • Corrosion resistance: Copper is resistant to corrosion from water, salt, and other common substances, making it an ideal material for use in plumbing, roofing, and marine applications.
  • Alloy formation: Copper readily forms alloys with other metals, such as zinc (to form brass) and tin (to form bronze). These alloys offer enhanced properties, such as increased strength or improved corrosion resistance.

Physical Properties

  • Malleability and ductility: Copper is a soft metal that can be easily shaped and molded without breaking. It is also highly ductile, meaning it can be drawn into thin wires without losing its strength.
  • Thermal and electrical conductivity: Copper is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity, second only to silver among pure metals. This property makes copper essential in electrical wiring, heat exchangers, and other applications where efficient energy transfer is required.
  • Color and luster: Copper has a distinctive reddish-orange color and a bright metallic luster when freshly polished. Over time, exposure to air and moisture can cause copper to develop a green patina, which is often desirable for decorative purposes.
Density8.96 g/cm³
Melting point1,084.62°C
Boiling point2,562°C
Thermal conductivity401 W/(m·K)
Electrical conductivity5.96 × 10⁷ S/m
Young’s modulus (Elastic)110-128 GPa
Shear modulus48 GPa
Bulk modulus140 GPa
Hardness (Vickers)369 MPa
Uses of Copper

These properties, combined with copper’s abundance and recyclability, make it a crucial material in modern society, with applications spanning from everyday consumer products to advanced technological systems.

Copper Production

The production of copper involves several stages, from mining copper ores to refining the metal into a pure form. Here’s a closer look at the copper production process.

Copper Mining

Copper is found in natural ore deposits around the world. The main copper ores are:

  • Chalcopyrite (CuFeS₂): The most common copper ore, chalcopyrite is a sulfide mineral that contains about 34% copper.
  • Bornite (Cu₅FeS₄): Also known as peacock ore due to its iridescent colors, bornite contains about 63% copper.
  • Malachite (Cu₂CO₃(OH)₂): A green copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, malachite contains about 57% copper.

Copper is extracted from these ores using two main methods:

  1. Open-pit mining: Used when copper ores are found near the surface, this method involves removing the overburden (rock and soil above the ore) and then extracting the ore using large excavators and haul trucks.
  2. Underground mining: When copper ores are found deep underground, tunnels and shafts are constructed to access the ore body. The ore is then extracted using drilling and blasting techniques.

Copper Extraction

Once the copper ore is mined, it is processed to extract the metal. The extraction process typically involves the following steps:

Crushing and GrindingOre is crushed and ground into fine powder
Froth FlotationOre is mixed with water and chemicals to create a slurry, air bubbles carry copper minerals to the surface
SmeltingConcentrated ore is heated to separate copper matte
ConvertingCopper matte is oxidized to remove impurities, resulting in blister copper
RefiningBlister copper is purified through pyrometallurgical or electrolytic refining to produce pure copper
Common Copper Ores and Their Copper Content
  1. Crushing and grinding: The ore is crushed and ground into a fine powder to increase the surface area for further processing.
  2. Froth flotation: The powdered ore is mixed with water and chemicals to create a slurry. Air is then bubbled through the slurry, causing the copper minerals to attach to the bubbles and float to the surface, where they are skimmed off.
  3. Smelting: The concentrated copper ore is heated in a furnace to temperatures around 1,200°C (2,192°F). At this temperature, the copper sulfide minerals are converted into copper matte, a molten mixture of copper, iron, and sulfur.
  4. Converting: The copper matte is then transferred to a converter, where it is blasted with air to oxidize the iron and sulfur, leaving behind blister copper (98-99% pure copper).

Copper Refining

The blister copper is then refined to produce pure copper. There are two main refining methods:

  1. Pyrometallurgical refining: The blister copper is fire refined by blowing air through the molten metal to oxidize any remaining impurities. The resulting anode copper (99.5% pure) is then cast into anodes for electrolytic refining.
  2. Electrolytic refining: The copper anodes are placed in an electrolytic cell with a solution of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid. An electric current is passed through the cell, causing the copper to dissolve from the anode and deposit onto a pure copper cathode, leaving behind any remaining impurities.

The resulting cathode copper is 99.99% pure and is ready for use in various applications.

Copper Recycling

Recycling copper is an essential aspect of sustainable copper production. Copper is 100% recyclable without any loss of quality, and recycling copper requires about 90% less energy than producing new copper from ore.

The copper recycling process involves:

  1. Collection: Scrap copper is collected from various sources, such as old electrical wiring, plumbing, and consumer products.
  2. Sorting and cleaning: The scrap copper is sorted by grade and cleaned to remove any contaminants.
  3. Melting: The cleaned scrap copper is melted in a furnace and cast into new shapes for use in various applications.

Recycling copper helps to conserve natural resources, reduce energy consumption, and minimize the environmental impact of copper production.

Uses of Copper

Copper’s unique properties make it an essential material in a wide range of applications. From electrical wiring to renewable energy systems, copper plays a crucial role in modern society.

ElectricalWiring, cables, transformers, motors, generators, renewable energy systems
ConstructionPlumbing, piping, roofing, facades, decorative elements
TransportationAutomotive wiring, radiators, brake lines, shipbuilding, aerospace applications
Industrial MachineryHeat exchangers, bearings, gears, molds, dies
Consumer ProductsCookware, utensils, jewelry, musical instruments
Uses of Copper

Electrical Applications

  • Wiring and cables: Copper’s excellent electrical conductivity makes it the primary material for electrical wiring and cables. It is used in building wiring, power transmission lines, and telecommunications cables.
  • Electrical components: Copper is used in various electrical components, such as transformers, motors, and generators, due to its conductivity and durability.
  • Renewable energy systems: Copper is essential in renewable energy systems, such as solar panels and wind turbines, where it is used in the electrical components and wiring.


  • Plumbing and piping: Copper’s corrosion resistance and durability make it an ideal material for plumbing and piping systems in buildings and homes.
  • Roofing and facades: Copper is used in roofing, flashing, and building facades due to its weathering properties and aesthetic appeal.
  • Decorative elements: Copper’s unique color and patina make it a popular choice for decorative elements in architecture, such as sculptures, fountains, and ornamental details.


  • Automotive industry: Copper is used in various automotive components, such as wiring harnesses, radiators, and brake lines, due to its conductivity and heat transfer properties.
  • Shipbuilding: Copper alloys, such as brass and bronze, are used in shipbuilding for their corrosion resistance and durability in marine environments.
  • Aerospace applications: Copper is used in aircraft wiring, avionics, and other electrical systems due to its reliability and conductivity.

Industrial Machinery

  • Heat exchangers: Copper’s excellent thermal conductivity makes it a preferred material for heat exchangers in various industrial applications, such as power generation and chemical processing.
  • Bearings and gears: Copper alloys, such as bronze, are used in bearings and gears due to their low friction and high wear resistance.
  • Molds and dies: Beryllium copper alloys are used in molds and dies for their hardness, strength, and resistance to wear and corrosion.

Home and Consumer Products

  • Cookware and utensils: Copper cookware is prized for its even heat distribution and aesthetic appeal. Copper is also used in kitchen utensils and decorative items.
  • Jewelry and decorative items: Copper’s unique color and malleability make it a popular choice for jewelry and decorative items, such as vases, frames, and figurines.
  • Musical instruments: Copper is used in various musical instruments, such as brass instruments (trumpets, trombones) and string instruments (guitar and piano strings), for its tonal qualities and durability.

Copper Alloys

Copper readily forms alloys with other metals, resulting in materials with enhanced properties and specific applications.

AlloyCompositionCommon Uses
BrassCopper and ZincPlumbing fixtures, valves, musical instruments, decorative items, ammunition casings
BronzeCopper and TinSculptures, medals, bearings, marine hardware
CupronickelCopper and NickelCoins, marine applications, heat exchangers
Copper-BerylliumCopper and BerylliumSprings, fasteners, electrical connectors
Nickel SilverCopper, Nickel, and ZincMusical instruments, cutlery, decorative items
Common Copper Alloys and Their Uses


  • Composition and properties: Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, typically containing 55-95% copper. It has a yellow color, good corrosion resistance, and excellent machinability.
  • Common uses: Brass is used in plumbing fixtures, valves, musical instruments, decorative items, and ammunition casings.


  • Composition and properties: Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, with other elements sometimes added for specific properties. It has a reddish-brown color, high strength, and good corrosion resistance.
  • Historical and modern uses: Historically, bronze was used for tools, weapons, and art. Today, bronze is used in sculptures, medals, bearings, and marine hardware.

Other Copper Alloys

  • Cupronickel: An alloy of copper and nickel, cupronickel is used in coins, marine applications, and heat exchangers for its corrosion resistance.
  • Copper-beryllium: Known for its high strength and hardness, copper-beryllium alloys are used in springs, fasteners, and electrical connectors.
  • Copper-nickel-zinc (nickel silver): Despite its name, nickel silver contains no silver. This alloy is used in musical instruments, cutlery, and decorative items for its silver-like appearance and durability.

Copper and Health

Copper plays a vital role in human health, but it can also have negative effects if consumed in excess.

Essential NutrientRequired for red blood cell formation, iron metabolism, connective tissue synthesis, nerve function, and immune support
Deficiency EffectsAnemia, weakened immune function, impaired growth in children
Toxicity EffectsNausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, liver damage
Recommended Daily Intake900 micrograms (μg) per day for adults
Tolerable Upper Intake Level10,000 μg per day for adults
Health Impacts of Copper

Copper as an Essential Nutrient

Copper is an essential trace element required for various bodily functions, such as:

  • Formation of red blood cells
  • Iron metabolism
  • Connective tissue synthesis
  • Nerve function
  • Immune system support

The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is around 900 micrograms (μg) per day.

Copper Deficiency and Toxicity

While copper deficiency is rare in developed countries, it can lead to health issues such as anemia, weakened immune function, and impaired growth in children.

On the other hand, excessive copper intake can cause acute or chronic toxicity, leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and liver damage. The tolerable upper intake level for copper is 10,000 μg per day for adults.

Antimicrobial Properties of Copper

Copper has natural antimicrobial properties, making it effective in reducing the spread of bacteria and viruses. When microbes come into contact with a copper surface, the copper ions damage their cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular components, leading to cell death.

This property has led to the use of copper in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, where copper alloy surfaces can help reduce the transmission of healthcare-associated infections.

Environmental Impact of Copper

While copper is an essential material in modern society, its production and use can have environmental consequences.

AspectEnvironmental ImpactMitigation Measures
Habitat DestructionDeforestation and habitat lossLand reclamation and restoration
Water PollutionContamination from mining waste and runoffWater treatment and proper waste disposal
Air PollutionEmissions from smelting and refining processesEmissions control technologies
Greenhouse Gas EmissionsHigh energy consumption in productionEnergy-efficient and low-emission technologies
Environmental Impact of Copper Production

Copper Mining and Environmental Concerns

Copper mining can have significant environmental impacts, such as:

  • Habitat destruction and deforestation
  • Water pollution from mining waste and runoff
  • Air pollution from smelting and refining processes
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from energy-intensive production

To mitigate these impacts, responsible mining practices, such as land reclamation, water treatment, and emissions control, are essential.

Sustainable Copper Production Practices

Sustainable copper production involves minimizing the environmental impact of mining and refining while also ensuring the long-term availability of copper resources. Some sustainable practices include:

  • Recycling copper to reduce the need for virgin ore
  • Implementing energy-efficient and low-emission technologies
  • Engaging in responsible water management and waste disposal
  • Restoring mined land to its natural state or adapting it for other uses

Copper’s Role in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Despite the environmental challenges associated with copper production, the metal plays a crucial role in the transition to a more sustainable future. Copper is essential in renewable energy systems, such as solar panels and wind turbines, where it is used in electrical components and wiring.

Additionally, copper’s excellent conductivity helps improve energy efficiency in electrical systems, reducing overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

Interesting Facts About Copper

  • Copper’s Role in the Statue of Liberty: The Statue of Liberty is covered in 179,000 pounds of copper sheets, which have oxidized over time to form the iconic green patina.
  • The Use of Copper in Ancient Egyptian Jewelry: Ancient Egyptians used copper to create intricate jewelry, such as the famous Cleopatra’s Needle, an obelisk made of copper and gold.
  • Copper’s Importance in the Development of Human Civilization: The discovery of copper and its alloys, bronze and brass, marked significant milestones in human history, enabling the development of advanced tools, weapons, and art.


Copper is a versatile and essential metal that has played a crucial role in human history and continues to be indispensable in modern society. Its unique properties, including excellent conductivity, corrosion resistance, and malleability, make it a vital material in a wide range of applications, from electrical wiring and plumbing to renewable energy systems and healthcare.

As we move towards a more sustainable future, the responsible production and use of copper will be critical in balancing the metal’s environmental impact with its essential role in enabling clean energy technologies and energy efficiency.

By understanding the properties, uses, and importance of copper, we can better appreciate this remarkable metal’s role in shaping our world and driving technological progress.

This article presented copper, explaining what it is and discussing its different attributes. To learn more about copper how UTM can assist with your copper requirements, get in touch with UTM

UTM offers a comprehensive range of manufacturing capabilities and value-added services to meet all your prototyping and production needs. Visit our website to explore our offerings.

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